Agent Orange status in Vietnam: Monsanto should financially help cleanup

U.S. Air Force planes flying a low altitude Agent Orange spraying mission

By Chuck Palazzo
Agent Orange Action Group

Investigative report on the supposed cleanup of Agent Orange from Vietnam’s busiest airport, with a plea to Monsanto and Dow Chemical to accept financial responsibility.

Da Nang International Airport

Agent Orange and the Removal of Dioxin: Status


Da Nang International Airport is the 3rd largest airport in Vietnam.  Over 1 million passengers travel through the airport annually.  This number is expected to rise to over 4 million passengers by 2020.  In anticipation of this growth, there is a major project underway to expand the runways as well as the construction of a new international terminal.  After the project is complete, the airport will have a total capacity of 6 million passengers per year.

During the Vietnam War, the facility was known as Da Nang Air Base.  This was a major United States military base.  Da Nang became the world’s busiest airport in the single runway category.  In the mid-1960’s, 1,500 landings and takeoffs were recorded on peak days.  When a second runway was added in 1966, Da Nang rivaled Tan Son Nhut as the world’s busiest airport.  By 1968 an average month saw the number of takeoffs and landings of fixed-wing aircraft exceeding 55,000.  With helicopter activities added, this figure approached 67,000.

Agent Orange

Agent Orange is the code name for one of the herbicides and defoliants used by the U.S. military as part of its herbicidal warfare program, Operation Ranch Hand, during the Vietnam War from 1961 to 1971.

A 50:50 mixture of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D, it was manufactured for the U.S. Department of Defense primarily by Monsanto Corporation and Dow Chemical. The herbicides used to produce Agent Orange were later discovered to be contaminated with 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), an extremely toxic dioxin. Because of the large military demand for Agent Orange, the manufacturing processes were accelerated, resulting in higher levels of dioxin contamination than in the 2,4,5-T produced for civilian applications. It was given its name from the color of the orange-striped 55 US gallon (200 L) barrels in which it was shipped, and was by far the most widely used of the so-called “Rainbow Herbicides”.

Between 1962 and 1971, the United States military sprayed 20 million US gallons (80,000,000 L) of chemical herbicides and defoliants in Vietnam, eastern Laos and parts of Cambodia, as part of Operation Ranch Hand. The program’s goal was to defoliate forested and rural land, depriving the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army of cover; another goal was to induce forced draft urbanization, destroying the ability of peasants to support themselves in the countryside, and forcing them to flee to the U.S. dominated cities, thus depriving the north of their rural support base and food supply.

For ten years the US Air Force flew nearly 20,000 herbicide spray missions in order to destroy the forest cover as well as agricultural lands in key areas of southern Vietnam. By 1971, 12 percent of the total area of South Vietnam had been sprayed with defoliating chemicals, which were often applied at rates that were 13 times as high as the legal USDA limit. In South Vietnam alone, an estimated 10 million hectares of agricultural land were ultimately destroyed.  In some areas TCDD concentrations in soil and water were hundreds of times greater than the levels considered “safe” by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Overall, more than 20% of South Vietnam’s forests were sprayed at least once over a nine year period.

After being sprayed by Agent Orange – Environmental Impact

28 of the former US military bases in Vietnam where the herbicides were stored and loaded onto airplanes still have high levels of dioxins in the soil, posing a health threat to the surrounding communities. Extensive testing for dioxin contamination has been conducted at the former US airbases in Da Nang, Phu Cat and Bien Hoa. Much of the soil and sediment on the bases have extremely high levels of dioxin requiring remediation. The Da Nang Airbase has dioxin contamination up to 350 times higher than international recommendations for action. The contaminated soil and sediment continue to affect the citizens of Vietnam, poisoning their food chain and causing illnesses, serious skin diseases and a variety of cancers in the lungs, larynx, and prostate.

Barrels of Agent Orange stored at the Da Nang Airbase

Of approximately 5 million Vietnamese who were exposed to Agent Orange/dioxin, 3 million people are estimated to be suffering from illnesses or birth defects. Hundreds of thousands have died as a result and many more continue to suffer.  In addition to those who were exposed to the spraying of Agent Orange, their children and grandchildren suffer horrific birth defects and disease as the genetic consequence of this poisoning enters the fourth generation. There is no end in sight.

Today, 50 years after the first spraying of Agent Orange in Vietnam, the manufacturers of this poison, specifically Monsanto and Dow Chemical, have not provided any compensation or other means of assistance to the Vietnamese victims of Agent Orange.  The US Government has done scant little more. The amounts of funding they have provided thus far, is miniscule compared to what is required.  Neither the manufacturers nor the US Government admits to any guilt for causing this catastrophe.  The fourth generation of victims is being born with gross physical and mental defects, numerous diseases, and lifelong disabilities. The manufacturers continue to reap incredibly large profits.  The US Government is consistently careful not to admit responsibility for this chemical poisoning of the Vietnamese people or to the environment of Vietnam.  A cable recently uncovered by WikiLeaks and dated August 10th, 2000 shows just how the US was determined NOT to offer direct assistance to Vietnam for the clean-up of Da Nang or elsewhere:

An Agent Orange victim

The Clean-up Commences

On June 17th, 2011, Vietnam’s Ministry of National Defense officially began activities to detect and remove unexploded ordnance (UXO) to prepare for U.S. supported remediation of dioxin contamination at Da Nang Airport.  Yes, detect and remove UXO that had been left, apparently undetected, since the war.  After years of studies, finally, something is being done at what might very well be one of the worst dioxin contaminated sites in the entire world.

After much fanfare, nothing else appeared in the local or international press.  No status.  No results.  What was the timeline?  What method was being used for the remediation?  What was the cost?

At first glance, I thought this was a tombstone.  A project from years past at Da Nang Airport.

On August 13th, 2011, upon my return to Da Nang from the 2nd International Agent Orange/Dioxin Conference held in Hanoi, I was intent to find out the status of the clean-up at the Airport.  I attempted to enter the area where so many barrels of Agent Orange had been stored during the war, so much spillage of Agent Orange occurring, so many aircraft being washed of the deadly poison – all entering the soil and water, contaminating the many heavily populated areas around the airport perimeter and beyond, causing death and destruction for so many decades.  I was turned away by both military and civilian security, and rightfully so.  This area contains dioxin levels several hundred times the acceptable EPA figures. If Da Nang Airport was in the US, this most certainly would qualify as a Superfund site!

I requested assistance from my colleagues at VAVA (Vietnam Association of Victims of Agent Orange/Dioxin) in Hanoi and Da Nang who immediately offered their help.  They arranged for a site visit at the dioxin hot-spot for me and on September, 27th, 2011, I was granted access.

My first impressions of the site were grim.  The stench nauseating.  The area that I now walked on had been cemented over a number of years earlier as an attempt to prevent further contamination from dioxin. This was the very site where Agent Orange had been stored, mixed, and loaded onto aircraft.  It is a wetland area with shallow groundwater.  It is adjacent to a very densely populated residential area.  This is the source of so much death, destruction and heartache.

Site of dioxin contamination at Da Nang Airport

I saw exactly what I expected and was afraid of.  Zero activity. I looked around and saw no one.    I asked the Vietnamese Military Officers who were escorting me on this visit, and they acknowledged there were no workers there, and had no idea why or when any work would continue (or begin?).  They recommended that I speak with the government environmental agency that is charged with overseeing the clean-up project.  I had an appointment arranged for that Friday.

Environmental Department

On Friday, September 30th, I met with a representative from the Ministry of Defense, Department of Science, Technology and Environment.  The gentleman I met with is a scientist as well as a high ranking military officer.  He has been very heavily involved with the Agent Orange problem as well as the dioxin remediation at the three primary “hot-spots” in Vietnam (in addition to Da Nang, the other two are Phu Cat and Bien Hoa).

After a few minutes of conversation, two things struck me immediately – this man impressed me with his scientific as well as practical knowledge of past studies, the current situation and the commencement of remediation, as well as, he cared very deeply about the people and the environment that have been so negatively impacted by the horrors of Agent Orange and dioxin for the past 50 years.  His explanation to me about the current status of the project and future plans was certainly scientific but he also emphasized the humanitarian aspects of the problem.  More has to be done for the victims.

The completion date for dioxin clean-up at Da Nang Airport is 2016.  This is the date that the American contractor who is doing the actual remediation plus USAID has committed to (the American contractor is CDM: and USAID is managing the budget including the disbursement of funds).  The Vietnamese Government has mandated a completion date of 2015.

The official went on to explain the dioxin levels in and around Da Nang airport as well as the status of the clean-up effort.  Right after the announcement had been made that the project would begin; the first task was that of UXO removal.  I was surprised to hear that after so many years of being such an important and busy commercial airport, that there still remained UXO in the soil and surrounding marshes.

The UXO removal had been completed within the past 30 days and resulted in “several hundred kilograms” of unexploded ordnance.  This consisted of mortar rounds, artillery warheads, grenades, shrapnel bombs and various small arms ammunition.  An official report presented by the Ministry of Defense confirmed these numbers and also states that “05 tons of scrap iron and other explosives” were removed as well.

UXO found and removed at Da Nang International Airport – August/September, 2011

The method of remediation that has been selected is known as In-Pile Thermal Desorption (IPTD).  There is approximately 67,000 cubic meters of dioxin contaminated soil at the airport which will be processed by this method.  In effect, the contaminated soil will be excavated, hauled and placed in the IPTD pile structure.  It is important to note, that this entire process will take place on premise at the airport.  The pile structure itself will be constructed in close proximity of the contaminated area.

This thermal technology, amongst other things, heats the soil to extreme highs (700-800 degrees centigrade) necessary to remove the dioxin contaminates.  In theory, the soil, once treated by IPTD will be returned to its “normal, pre-contaminated” state.  I say “in theory”, because one question I asked the Doctor was if this method had ever been successfully used in removing dioxin at these very high levels.  To his knowledge, it never has been – but he believes the technology will in fact work.

The structure itself will be approximately 70 meters wide by 105 meters long with a height of 6 meters of soil/sediment and 7.5 to 8 meters with bottom and top insulation systems.  The size of the project, amount of soil that will go through the process and energy needed to heat the soil to the extreme highs necessary requires a new and dedicated electrical plant.  The construction of the plant is part of the project and will reside adjacent to the IPTD.


Timeline & Cost

During a recent presentation given by USAID at the Joint Advisory Committee held in Hanoi on September 22, 2011, the following timeline was established:

•         September 2011: MND completes UXO clearance
•         Late 2011/Early 2012: Receive GVN approval of EIA
•         Spring 2012: Complete design of thermal treatment system
•         Summer 2012: Begin excavation and construction
•         Summer 2013: Begin thermal treatment system installation
•         Summer 2016: Complete thermal treatment
•         Late 2016: Site restored and project demobilized

Determining the cost of the project varies – some sources indicate a total of $34million to be dedicated to the remediation efforts in Da Nang.  This is an initial cost estimate.

Next Steps

I want to mention and emphasize a few items.  First, the manufacturers of Agent Orange, specifically Monsanto and Dow Chemical have never contributed any money for the Vietnamese victims of Agent Orange.  There were other companies who produced this poison, but Monsanto produced the most volume and manufactured a much more potent version of Agent Orange – many times over and above what was required as an herbicide.  They continue to deny their role in this disaster.  To this day, their website reads:

“We believe that the adverse consequences alleged to have arisen out of the Vietnam War, including the use of Agent Orange, should be resolved by the governments that were involved”.

There are numerous studies which indicate the dangers of Agent Orange – proven to be responsible for disease, birth defects, mental illness, and death.  US veterans who were exposed to Agent Orange during the war continue their struggle for recognition and compensation from the US Government.  The Vietnamese victims have received nothing – nothing from the manufacturers and a pittance from the US Government.  True, this project is a much needed start of what we hope will be remediation of all contaminated soil in Vietnam, but it is the victims who suffer the most – we are now entering a fourth generation of victims who are affected by the ravages of Agent Orange.

Monsanto continues its denial and, has had the audacity to open offices in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam recently.  Their purpose?  Selling genetically modified seeds and organisms to the people of Vietnam.  Monsanto is the largest producer of genetically engineered seeds in the world, a multi-billion dollar business which preys and thrives on selling broken promises, false hopes – and out and out lies, so they can improve their bottom line.  Monsanto insists that GMO is harmless – just as they told us Agent Orange was and is harmless.

At the conclusion of our meeting, I asked the Doctor what if anything can I do to help him and to help the project.  His response?  Invite Monsanto to visit Da Nang.  Show Monsanto what Agent Orange, their Agent Orange, has done to the people here.  They must see for themselves the devastation that was caused by them.

Yes, this is a step in the right direction, but what about the rest of Vietnam?  What about the other hot-spots?  I was told that Phu Cat has a lesser problem and there is a plan in place for remediation there.  He could not give me a date, but I was told it would be soon.  Phu Cat appears to be less complicated than Da Nang.  What about Bien Hoa?  He told me repeatedly during our meeting that Bien Hoa was “very complicated”. The studies and planning continue at Bien Hoa – and the problems with contamination and people affected could indeed be as bad as Da Nang.  Bien Hoa was the site of several major spills of Agent Orange in early 1970.  One was a spill of 7,500 gallons.  Later that year three other spills occurred.

An Open Invitation to the Manufacturers of Agent Orange

Monsanto, from your office in Ho Chi Minh City, it’s a short taxi ride to the airport.  A one hour flight will bring you to Da Nang.  You don’t even have to leave the airport to see the site where remediation is soon to begin.  But then again, you do need to see the destruction of human life.  The birth defects.  The physical and mental impairments. The disease.  Perhaps if you took the time to see the generations of victims, the broken hearts, the misery, you would indeed set aside your corporate greed and lend a humanitarian hand to the victims.  It has been 50 years since the US first sprayed your manufactured poison.  This is an open invitation to the management of Monsanto – please come to Da Nang.  See this, one of the several hot-spots in Vietnam.  See the results of Agent Orange.


Related: Vietnamese Woman, ‘Ages’ 50 Years In Days
(I have to wonder if GM food caused this ~Ed.)

13 responses to “Agent Orange status in Vietnam: Monsanto should financially help cleanup

  1. Pingback: The Progressive Mind » Agent Orange status in Vietnam: Monsanto should financially help cleanup | Food Freedom

  2. Readers are encouraged to visit ‘The Agent Orange Action Group’ at Those with an interest in Monsanto and Agent Orange please visit a previous Food Freedom ‘classic’ at The comments are a MUST read! Justice for the Victims of Agent Orange!

  3. Amy Wong - SIngapore

    Thank you Monsanto! You deserve to rot in Hell!

  4. An Ashamed Vietnam Vet

    Monsanto must be made to pay compensation to the Victims of Agent Orange. Generation after generation has suffered. Monsanto is one of the worst companies on the face of the earth! God help those poor Victims who through no fault of their own continue to suffer. Thank you for the excellent coverage Mr. Palazzo!

  5. Thanks for a wonderful report, and how much I agree with the comment by Amy Wong, if there is a hell, Monsanto deserves to be first in line.
    Thanks to Food Freedom for publishing this article, I hope that readers will pass it on to many others and may I suggest they send it to their representatives in Parliament, Congress, Senate, The White House and Monsanto.

  6. A student in Hanoi

    I like your comment Mr. Len! Monsanto should not have an office in Vietnam!

  7. We have been saying this, but Monsanto actually defends itself with the “we were following orders” excuse. This defense was not allowed after World War 11 and it should not be allowed now.

    Please go to and join our forum or go a step further and send poetry and short prose to and become a part of our Boycott Monsanto and Dow Chemical Poetry Blog.

    Thanks for the great article.

    Michael H. Brownstein

  8. I thank the Student in Hanoi for his comment. Sorry to say that Monsanto also has an offioce in my country England and I asked the Prime Minister to close it down due to the damage the company had done by dumping chemical waste that included Agent Orange in a number of landfill sites. The Prime Minister has refused, but we still need to continue. Monsanto is growing more powerful each day, and it will need international pressure to bring the company to its knees.

    Let’s make a start by agreeing not to purchase any product made by Monsanto, and if you see any food in your store that has GMO amongst the ingredients, take it to the manager and tell them to stop selling it.

  9. F#CK Monsanto!

  10. Press Release from the ‘Agent Orange Action Group’

    Agent Orange Action Group Calls for protest at Monsanto’s annual general meeting

    Monsanto, the company that manufactured Agent Orange used on Vietnam resulting in the deaths of many thousands of Vietnamese and the abnormal births of many thousands more, and also among military forces from the US and other countries who served during the Vietnam War, announced on 25th October that its Board of Directors has designated

    Tuesday, Jan. 24, 2012 as the date of the next annual meeting of shareowners.

    Monsanto’s annual meeting will be held at the company’s headquarters facility in suburban St. Louis. Additional meeting details will be included in the company’s proxy statement, which will be available in December.

    Len Aldis, Chairman of Agent Orange Action Group called upon all who are suffering from the effects of Agent Orange to take this opportunity to purchase shares in the company in so doing they can express their anger and concerns by asking questions to the board members for the criminal damage Agent Orange has caused to all victims and their families.

    For those unable to purchase share, to encourage others to join you outside the meeting in a peaceful expression of your anger.

    Len Aldis. Chairman
    Agent Orange Action Group


    Oh My Heart Weeps For You VIETNAM….I Stand AGAINST This MONSANTO That Poisoned Your World!–And Every River!–And Deep In The Earth!–I Hear The CRY Of Your TORTURED Families!–And How The Murderer Corp Monsanto Can STILL “spray” Free!–And EVEN In My America!–He SPRAYS Out My OWN Family Members!–State Be State!–We Are Victims of This MONSANTO Too!–You NEVER Deserved This!–And No Matter What Payback MONSANTO Lands On You!–It Is Not Enough!–He Could Never Make Up For This CRIME….The Best That Could Happen….Is THE BANKRUPTCY Of Monsanto Inc!–He Destroys My OWN America!–with this Same “AGENT-ORANGE”….And Still–these criminals are not yet PROSECUTED….As we suffer–


  12. Southeast Asia, the most-heavily bombed place on earth.
    How many tons of munitions were dropped in Vietnam War?
    Around 16 million tons.
    300 tons for every man, woman and child living in Vietnam.
    Plus defoliants Agent Orange, Agent Blue…napalm, etc., etc.
    Now, Vietnam is the second largest exporter of rice in the world…
    Province of Quang Tri, which has recorded the highest number of deaths and injuries caused by unexploded bombs and landmines.

    Please appreciate this beautiful photograph:
    A Vietnamese woman in her rice field near Vinh, Vietnam.
    Vietnam is the second largest exporter of rice in the world – shipping out 6.83 million tons of milled rice in 2010, and the Mekong Delta is the its “rice basket,” producing more than half of the country’s rice and an even larger share of fish and fruit products rid cluster munitions: In Southeast Asia, where the US dropped a combined payload of 383 million sub-munitions on Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam from 1965- 1975.
    Only 5% UXO’s cleared, more than 20 percent of the country’s total surface area, has been affected by UXOs left behind by the Vietnam War. At least 62,000 people have been injured by unexploded ordnances (UXOs), according to government statistics, and the fatalities and injuries continue to violently disrupt lives in the country.$500-mln-to-clear-war-era-bombs-mines.aspx
    Vietnam is seeking US$500 million in assistance from domestic and international sources to help clear war-era bombs and mines and reduce the difficulties for its people and land contaminated by unexploded ordnance…
    US Ambassador David Shear told the seminar Washington had already provided $62 million to help survivors of UXO accidents. The US Humanitarian Mine Action Program has provided a further $37 million since 1989, the embassy said.

    “once a bad idea is implemented, it starts to gain momentum and then it becomes nearly impossible to stop”
    Are our leaders in the US any smarter now?

    visit: speak up for peace

  13. s. burlington claude

    Make Viet Nam pay for the 55,000 American lives lost in their country. They deserve what they got. A Marine vet who served in Da Nang

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